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Grammophone Search form VideoGRAMMOPHONE - Rowan Atkinson - Not The Nine o'Clock News Ein Grammophon oder -fon ist ein Gerät zur Aufzeichnung und Wiedergabe von Tönen, das von Emil Berliner erfunden wurde. Als reines Abspielgerät war es der mechanische Vorläufer des Plattenspielers. Normale Grammophone waren, im Gegensatz zum Phonographen, nur für die Wiedergabe der Schallaufzeichnung vorgesehen. Dadurch entfiel die Spindel zur. Top-Angebote für Antike Grammophone online entdecken bei eBay. Top Marken | Günstige Preise | Große Auswahl. Top-Angebote für Grammofon in Sammler-Grammophone online entdecken bei eBay. Top Marken | Günstige Preise | Große Auswahl. Es wurde von der International Zonophone Company des Amerikaners Frank Seaman hergestellt, der zuvor Berliners Verkaufsleiter gewesen war. Bremse für Grammophon Pivot Break, HMV, Gramophone Ulrike Meyfarth 1984, DGAG, Victor Talking EURMöchten Sie etwas kaufen oder verkaufen? The gramophone was the transition to modern turntables and record players. It was different from the prior record player inventions because of two things. First, the gramophone changed the way recording operated. From a spinning cylinder, records were then played through flat discs which were more portable than the cylindrical ones. Explore 40, album reviews from the pages of Gramophone, the world's leading classical music magazine, from to today. BROWSE THE BEST CLEARANCE DEALS. It's always the right time to save. We’ve hand-picked items that will offer you an outstanding value from some of the finest brands in audio and amychavez.com of these items have been “gently used” as demos in our showrooms.
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Home Recording History of Gramophone. Table of Contents. RELATED ARTICLES MORE FROM AUTHOR. What does EP stand for in music? What is the Difference between LP and EP in music?
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Matthew - February 2, Learning how to play the piano can be a highly rewarding experience. It can be a good instrument for beginners.
Matthew - November 20, Often regarded as the heroes who revived the heavy metal scene in the late 70s and early 80s, British rock band Motörhead have produced Through experimentation, in Berliner began commercial production of his disc records, and "gramophones".
His " gramophone record " was the first disc record to be offered to the public. They were five inches Seven-inch Also in Berliner replaced the hard rubber used to make the discs with a shellac compound.
Work by Eldridge R. Johnson eventually improved the sound fidelity to a point where it was as good as the cylinder.
In , discs were first pressed with music on both sides and capable of around seven minutes total playing time, as opposed to the cylinder's typical duration on two minutes at that time.
As a result of this and the fragility of wax cylinders in transit and storage, cylinders sales declined. Edison felt the increasing commercial pressure for disc records, and by , though reluctant at first, his production of disc records was in full swing.
This was the Edison Disc Record. Nevertheless, he continued to manufacture cylinders until and was last to withdraw from that market. From the mids until World War I , both phonograph cylinder and disc recordings and machines to play them on were widely mass-marketed and sold.
The disc system superseded the cylinder in Europe by when both Columbia and Pathe withdrew from that market. By , Edison was the only company still producing cylinders in the USA although in Great Britain small manufacturers pressed on until See gramophone record.
The s brought improved radio technology. Radio sales increased, bringing many phonograph dealers to near financial ruin.
With efforts at improved audio fidelity, the big record companies succeeded in keeping business booming through the end of the decade, but the record sales plummeted during the Great Depression , with many companies merging or going out of business.
Record sales picked up appreciably by the late 30s and early 40s, with greater improvements in fidelity and more money to be spent. In the s, vinyl originally known as vinylite was introduced as a record material for radio transcription discs , and for radio commercials.
At that time, virtually no discs for home use were made from this material. Vinyl was used for the popular rpm V-discs issued to US soldiers during World War II.
This significantly reduced breakage during transport. The first commercial vinylite record was the set of five 12" discs " Prince Igor " Asch Records album S, dubbed from Soviet masters in Victor began selling some home-use vinyl 78s in late ; but most 78s were made of a shellac compound until the rpm format was completely phased out.
Shellac records were heavier and more brittle. Booms in record sales returned after the Second World War, as industry standards changed from 78s to vinyl, long-playing records commonly called record albums , which could contain an entire symphony , and 45s which usually contained one hit song popularized on the radio — thus the term "single" record — plus another song on the back or "flip" side.
An " extended play " version of the 45 was also available, designated 45 EP , which provided capacity for longer musical selections, or for two regular-length songs per side.
Shortcomings include surface noise caused by dirt or abrasions scratches and failure caused by deep surface scratches causing skipping of the stylus forward and missing a section, or groove lock, causing a section to repeat, usually punctuated by a popping noise.
In , Philco developed and produced the world's first all- transistor phonograph models TPA-1 and TPA-2, which were announced in the June 28, edition of the Wall Street Journal.
The all-transistor portable phonograph TPA-1 and TPA-2 models played only 45rpm records and used four 1. The "TPA" stands for "Transistor Phonograph Amplifier".
Their circuitry used three Philco germanium PNP alloy-fused junction audio frequency transistors. By the s, cheaper portable record players and record changers which played stacks of records in wooden console cabinets were popular, usually with heavy and crude tonearms in the portables.
The consoles were often equipped with better quality pick-up cartridges. Even pharmacies stocked 45 rpm records at their front counters.
Rock music played on 45s became the soundtrack to the s as people bought the same songs that were played free of charge on the radio. Some record players were even tried in automobiles, but were quickly displaced by 8-track and cassette tapes.
The fidelity of sound reproduction made great advances during the s, as turntables became very precise instruments with belt or direct drive, jewel-balanced tonearms, some with electronically controlled linear tracking and magnetic cartridges.
A well-maintained record would have very little surface noise. A novelty variation on the standard format was the use of multiple concentric spirals with different recordings.
Thus when the record was played multiple times, different recordings would play, seemingly at random. These were often utilized in talking toys and games.
Records themselves became an art form because of the large surface onto which graphics and books could be printed, and records could be molded into unusual shapes, colors, or with images picture discs.
The turntable remained a common element of home audio systems well after the introduction of other media, such as audio tape and even the early years of the compact disc as a lower-priced music format.
However, even though the cost of producing CDs fell below that of records, CDs remained a higher-priced music format than either cassettes or records.
Thus, records were not uncommon in home audio systems into the early s. By the turn of the 21st century, the turntable had become a niche product, as the price of CD players , which reproduce music free of pops and scratches, fell far lower than high-fidelity tape players or turntables.
Nevertheless, there is some increase in interest; many big-box media stores carry turntables, as do professional DJ equipment stores. Most low-end and mid-range amplifiers omit the phono input ; but on the other hand, low-end turntables with built-in phono pre-amplifiers are widely available.
Some combination systems include a basic turntable, a CD player, a cassette deck. Records also continue to be manufactured and sold today, albeit in smaller quantities than in the disc phonograph's heyday.
Inexpensive record players typically used a flanged steel stamping for the turntable structure. A rubber disc would be secured to the top of the stamping to provide traction for the record, as well as a small amount of vibration isolation.
The spindle bearing usually consisted of a bronze bushing. The flange on the stamping provided a convenient place to drive the turntable by means of an idler wheel see below.
While light and cheap to manufacture, these mechanisms had low inertia , making motor speed instabilities more pronounced.
Costlier turntables made from heavy aluminium castings have greater balanced mass and inertia, helping minimize vibration at the stylus, and maintaining constant speed without wow or flutter, even if the motor exhibits cogging effects.
Like stamped steel turntables, they were topped with rubber. Because of the increased mass, they usually employed ball bearings or roller bearings in the spindle to reduce friction and noise.
Most are belt or direct drive, but some use an idler wheel. A specific case was the Swiss "Lenco" drive, which possessed a very heavy turntable coupled via an idler wheel to a long, tapered motor drive shaft.
This enabled stepless rotation or speed control on the drive. Because of this feature the Lenco became popular in the late s with dancing schools, because the dancing instructor could lead the dancing exercises at different speeds.
By the early s, some companies started producing very inexpensive turntables that displaced the products of companies like BSR. Commonly found in "all-in-one" stereos from assorted far-east manufacturers, they used a thin plastic table set in a plastic plinth, no mats, belt drive, weak motors, and often, lightweight plastic tonearms with no counterweight.
Most used sapphire pickups housed in ceramic cartridges, and they lacked several features of earlier units, such as auto-start and record-stacking.
While not as common now that turntables are absent from the cheap "all-in-one" units, this type of turntable has made a strong resurgence in nostalgia-marketed record players.
From the earliest phonograph designs, many of which were powered by spring-wound mechanisms, a speed governor was essential. Most of these employed some type of flywheel-friction disc to control the speed of the rotating cylinder or turntable; as the speed increased, centrifugal force caused a brake—often a felt pad—to rub against a smooth metal surface, slowing rotation.
Electrically powered turntables, whose rotational speed was governed by other means, eventually made their mechanical counterparts obsolete.
The mechanical governor was, however, still employed in some toy phonographs such as those found in talking dolls until they were replaced by digital sound generators in the late 20th century.
Many modern players have platters with a continuous series of strobe markings machined or printed around their edge. Viewing these markings in artificial light at mains frequency produces a stroboscopic effect , which can be used to verify proper rotational speed.
Additionally, the edge of the turntable can contain magnetic markings to provide feedback pulses to an electronic speed-control system.
Earlier designs used a rubberized idler-wheel drive system. However, wear and decomposition of the wheel, as well as the direct mechanical coupling to a vibrating motor, introduced low-frequency noise " rumble " and speed variations " wow and flutter " into the sound.
These systems generally used a synchronous motor which ran at a speed synchronized to the frequency of the AC power supply. Portable record players typically used an inexpensive shaded-pole motor.
At the end of the motor shaft there was a stepped driving capstan; to obtain different speeds, the rubber idler wheel was moved to contact different steps of this capstan.
The idler was pinched against the bottom or inside edge of the platter to drive it. Until the s, the idler-wheel drive was the most common on turntables, except for higher-end audiophile models.
However, even some higher-end turntables, such as the Lenco , Garrard , EMT , and Dual turntables, used idler-wheel drive.
Belt drives brought improved motor and platter isolation compared to idler-wheel designs. Motor noise, generally heard as low-frequency rumble, is greatly reduced.
The design of the belt drive turntable allows for a less expensive motor than the direct-drive turntable to be used. The elastomeric belt absorbs motor vibrations and noise which could otherwise be picked up by the stylus.
It also absorbs small, fast speed variations, caused by "cogging", which in other designs are heard as "flutter. The "Acoustical professional" turntable earlier marketed under Dutch "Jobo prof" of the s however possessed an expensive German drive motor, the "Pabst Aussenläufer" "Pabst outrunner".
As this motor name implied, the rotor was on the outside of the motor and acted as a flywheel ahead of the belt-driven turntable itself.
In combination with a steel to nylon turntable bearing with molybdenum disulfide inside for lifelong lubrication very low wow, flutter and rumble figures were achieved.
Direct-drive turntables drive the platter directly without utilizing intermediate wheels, belts, or gears as part of a drive train.
This requires good engineering, with advanced electronics for acceleration and speed control. Matsushita's Technics division introduced the first commercially successful direct drive platter, model SP10, in , which was joined by the Technics SL turntable, in Its updated model, SLMK2, released in , had a stronger motor, a convenient pitch control slider for beatmatching and a stylus illuminator, which made it the long-standing favourite among disc jockeys see " Turntablism ".
By the beginnings of the 80s, lowering of costs in microcontroller electronics made direct drive turntables more affordable.
The tone arm or tonearm holds the pickup cartridge over the groove, the stylus tracking the groove with the desired force to give the optimal compromise between good tracking and minimizing wear of the stylus and record groove.
At its simplest, a tone arm is a pivoted lever, free to move in two axes vertical and horizontal with a counterbalance to maintain tracking pressure.
However, the requirements of high-fidelity reproduction place more demands upon the arm design. In a perfect world:.
These demands are contradictory and impossible to realize massless arms and zero-friction bearings do not exist in the real world , so tone arm designs require engineering compromises.
Solutions vary, but all modern tonearms are at least relatively lightweight and stiff constructions, with precision, very low friction pivot bearings in both the vertical and horizontal axes.
Most arms are made from some kind of alloy the cheapest being aluminium , but some manufacturers use balsa wood, while others use carbon fiber or graphite.
The latter materials favor a straight arm design; alloys' properties lend themselves to S-type arms. The tone arm got its name before the age of electronics.
It originally served to conduct actual sound waves from a purely mechanical "pickup" called a sound box or reproducer to a so-described "amplifying" horn.
The earliest electronic record players, introduced at the end of , had massive electromagnetic pickups that contained a horseshoe magnet, used disposable steel needles, and weighed several ounces.
Their full weight rested on the record, providing ample tracking force to overcome their low compliance but causing rapid record wear.
The tone arms were rudimentary and remained so even after lighter crystal pickups appeared about ten years later.
When fine-grooved vinyl records were introduced in the late s, still smaller and lighter crystal later, ceramic cartridges with semi-permanent jewel styluses became standard.
In the mids these were joined by a new generation of magnetic cartridges that bore little resemblance to their crude ancestors. Far smaller tracking forces became possible and the balanced arm came into use.
Prices varied widely. The well-known and extremely popular high-end S-type SME arm of the — era not only had a complicated design, it was also very costly.
It was used during that period by all official radio stations in the Dutch Broadcast studio facilities of the NOS, as well as by the pirate radio station Veronica.
Playing records from a boat in international waters, the arm had to withstand sudden ship movements. Anecdotes indicate this low-cost arm was the only one capable of keeping the needle firmly in the groove during heavy storms at sea.
Quality arms employ an adjustable counterweight to offset the mass of the arm and various cartridges and headshells. On this counterweight, a calibrated dial enables easy adjustment of stylus force.
After perfectly balancing the arm, the dial itself is "zeroed"; the stylus force can then be dialed in by screwing the counterweight towards the fulcrum.
Sometimes a separate spring or smaller weight provides fine tuning. Of special adjustment consideration, Stanton cartridges of the EE E series [and others like them] feature a small record brush ahead of the cartridge.
Even on a perfectly flat LP, tonearms are prone to two types of tracking errors that affect the sound.
As the tonearm tracks the groove, the stylus exerts a frictional force tangent to the arc of the groove, and since this force does not intersect the tone arm pivot, a clockwise rotational force moment occurs and a reaction skating force is exerted on the stylus by the record groove wall away from center of the disc.
Modern arms provide an anti-skate mechanism , using springs, hanging weights, or magnets to produce an offsetting counter-clockwise force at the pivot, making the net lateral force on the groove walls near zero.
The second error occurs as the arm sweeps in an arc across the disc, causing the angle between the cartridge head and groove to change slightly.
Making the arm longer to reduce this angle is a partial solution, but less than ideal. A longer arm weighs more, and only an infinitely long [pivoted] arm would reduce the error to zero.
Some designs Burne-Jones, and Garrard "Zero" series use dual arms in a parallelogram arrangement, pivoting the cartridge head to maintain a constant angle as it moves across the record.
Unfortunately this "solution" creates more problems than it solves, compromising rigidity and creating sources of unwanted noise.
The pivoted arm produces yet another problem which is unlikely to be significant to the audiophile, though. As the master was originally cut in a linear motion from the edge towards the center, but the stylus on the pivoted arm always draws an arc, this causes a timing drift that is most significant when digitizing music and beat mapping the data for synchronization with other songs in a DAW or DJ software unless the software allows building a non-linear beat map.
As the contact point of the stylus on the record wanders farther from the linear path between the starting point and center hole, the tempo and pitch tend to decrease towards the middle of the record, until the arc reaches its apex.
After that the tempo and pitch increase towards the end as the contact point comes closer to the linear path again. Because the surface speed of the record is lower at the end, the relative speed error from the same absolute distance error is higher at the end, and the increase in tempo is more notable towards the end than the decrease towards the middle.
This can be somewhat reduced by a curved arm pivoted so that the end point of the arc stays farther from the linear path than the starting point, or by a long straight arm that pivots perpendicularly to the linear path in the middle of the record.
However the tempo droop at the middle can only be completely avoided by a linear tracking arm. If the arm is not pivoted, but instead carries the stylus along a radius of the disc, there is no skating force and little to no cartridge angle error.
Such arms are known as linear tracking or tangential arms. These are driven along a track by various means, from strings and pulleys, to worm gears or electromagnets.
The cartridge's position is usually regulated by an electronic servomechanism or mechanical interface, moving the stylus properly over the groove as the record plays, or for song selection.
There are long-armed and short-armed linear arm designs. On a perfectly flat record a short arm will do, but once the record is even slightly warped, a short arm will be troublesome.
Any vertical motion of the record surface at the stylus contact point will cause the stylus to considerably move longitudinally in the groove.
This will cause the stylus to ride non-tangentially in the groove and cause a stereo phase error as well as pitch error every time the stylus rides over the warp.
Also the arm track can come into touch with the record. A long arm will not completely eliminate this problem but will tolerate warped records much better.
These were eclipsed by more successful implementations of the concept from the late s through the early s. These models positioned the track outside the platter's edge, as did turntables by Harman Kardon, Mitsubishi, Pioneer, Yamaha, Sony, etc.
A s design from Revox harkened back to the s attempts and, record lathes , positioning the track directly over the record. An enclosed bridge-like assembly is swung into place from the platter's right edge to its middle.
Once in place, a short tonearm under this "bridge" plays the record, driven across laterally by a motor.
The Technics SL , introduced in , was the first direct drive linear tracking turntable, and placed the track and arm on the underside of the rear-hinged dust cover, to fold down over the record, similar to the SL-Q6 pictured.
The earliest Edison phonographs used horizontal, spring-powered drives to carry the stylus across the recording at a pre-determined rate. The resources it takes to produce one incredible linear turntable could produce several excellent ones.
Some of the most sophisticated and expensive tonearms and turntable units ever made are linear trackers, from companies such as Rockport and Clearaudio.
In theory, it seems nearly ideal; a stylus replicating the motion of the recording lathe used to cut the "master" record could result in minimal wear and maximum sound reproduction.
In practice, in vinyl's heyday it was generally too much too late. Shop Now Visit our online shop. Our Case Studies Be Inspired.
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